Spa history and management

Spa history

Treatments associated with spa therapy have a history of thousands of years. The most important thing in a spa is water. Even if mineral water is used from the nature of a lake or sea, or obtained from an artificial element, the element is water. Another aspect of the 오피스타 spa is its health, environment, mud, and unique therapeutic ingredients.

Through research on the history of spa, various aspects of spa were discovered, and the representative period and main contents are presented below.

5000 BC A form of acupressure was practiced in China. It originated in India and was introduced by the Chinese traveling there and developed into their own system.

500 BC Ayurvedic healing forms were practiced in India. This treatment has been accepted as a pioneer in treatment, including in many other health systems.

300 BC Hydrotherapy and herbal remedies were developed by the Egyptians.

500 BC The Greeks believed that water, a property of nature, strengthened the body, and cold water bath therapy was practiced for the purpose of healing soldiers and soldiers.

380 BC Hippocrates was a famous physician and was called the father of medicine. He believed that hot and cold baths were an effective remedy. He developed the ‘Rule of opposites’ (the rule of opposites: heterogeneous effects) and thought that ‘cold affusions’ (cold tube equations) induce heat. He also found that he used the massage method on wounded and ill people, then rubbing it towards the chest, which was more beneficial (at the time he didn’t understand the circulatory system).

300 BC Hydrotherapy was introduced to the Roman Empire by the ancient Greeks.

100 BC Buddhism was introduced from Thailand, and massage and therapy systems were also developed.

23 AD Antony Musa used the Hippocratic heterogeneity principle. With this, Emperor August cured his liver disease.

37 AD Celsus worked as a physician in Rome, giving people with edema of the legs cold baths that submerge down to the neck.

The Romans in the first century AD 50 lived in waters rich in minerals and salt to lead a healthy life.

76 AD Spa (qua sulis) was built by the Romans.

80 AD In Belgium, a method called ‘sulus par aqua’ (health through water) was used by the Romans. It is believed to be the origin of the spa, which developed a progressive system of massage.

180 AD Gallen discovered an artery filled with blood, not air, while working as a physician in Rome. For treatment, Galen used frequent exchange of hot and cold water for bathing and irrigation.

211 AD In Baden-Baden, Germany, a management method using a thermal spa was applied for treatment.

600 AD Shiatsu was introduced from China as a medical method, but the Japanese developed their own unique form of shiatsu (acupressure).

800 AD Turkish bathing was developed from the Ottoman Empire.

1100 AD Italian female doctor Troturi recommended sea baths and herbal baths to those who want to achieve beauty and slimness. In addition, her treatment method was to manage by mixing and using cow feces and herbs throughout the body when sweating in a steam room or taking a hot sand bath.

1200 AD Britain discovered Turkish baths during the Crusades. This may have been the beginning of the development of the London steam room.

1326 AD Belgian spa: sulus par aqua (see 80 AD) The hot springs have been rediscovered. A local iron maker, colin le loup, said that he was cured of his illness in an offshore hot spring.

1350 AD Hot springs are more developed in Europe and include Buda. Carlsbad, discovered by Emperor Charlie IV, during this time irrigation baths and showers were developed in Italy.

1360 AD In England, there was a bad view of how to cure by means of hot springs. This is because they thought they were easy to be exposed to diseases and diseases. And because they thought they could hide inappropriate behavior when taking a bath.

1500 AD During the Renaissance in Europe, bathing during medical treatments became popular.

1540 AD In Yeongseong, showers and hot springs were banned under Henry VIII. The reason is that these actions were thought to be related to the Roman period.

1551 AD Schillingsby William discovered the hot springs of Harrogate. The hot springs of Belgium and Timoth were called British spas, and they were introduced as British spas.

1571 AD British Catholics traveled from spas in Belgium, saying, “Bring water,” to stumble upon Catholics from all over Europe. The conquerors of Britain’s Protestant monarchy placed restrictions on spa trips to Belgium. In England, bathing was repopulated by Elizabeth I, and the most famous spa in Europe was Baden, Germany.

1580 AD Italian spas flourished, including Abano, Padille, Montecatini and Lucca. The development of the French spa was slow, but it included Vichy.

1631 AD In England, the chemicals contained in spas were studied. British spas have become one of the most famous European spas for rejuvenating health.

In 1663 AD, King Charles II’s visit to the spa led to the popular development of the Epsom and Tunbrige spas. It was during this time that ‘Samuel Pepys’ commented on bathing. He believed that spas had unique healing properties.

1690 AD Cold water therapy developed as a therapy for the treatment of ailments of the mind.

1750 AD Cold water was accepted to help promote circulation by stimulating sleep, burn treatment and disinfection, and stimulating the body.

1780 AD George III tried to cure his delusions using water brought from Weymouth in southern England.

1810 AD Peter Henry Ling of Sweden developed Swedish massage, and his massage therapy spread to Europe and America. He thought that anatomical knowledge and understanding and knowledge of the human body should be preceded before attempting massage and exercise. He thought that when receiving a massage, he should be treated only in normal conditions, and he recommended that he seek treatment from a doctor if abnormal symptoms occurred.

1826 AD A European-style spa opened in New York’s Saratoga Hot Springs.

1829 AD Diet, exercise, swimming, fresh air and healthy treatments were opened in the first water spa system in Gaffenberg, Germany. Priessnitz Treatment is a treatment using cold water, which has been developed by combining cold wrapping, cold bathing, clean air, nutrition, and exercise.

1848 AD A water treatment center opened 30 years ago in the eastern United States. It can be said that this is different from the European spa, and diet and exercise are not included.

1849 AD There was a small spa a hundred years ago in Malvern, in the midwest of England. However, it is now used as a major center in the UK to treat patients through hydrotherapy. A spa called Men Rickding in Yorkshire is also connected to Molburn. Other spas are Water Cure, operating in cities across the country, including Manchester, Epsom, Turnbridge Wells, Bart, Maltok, Grasmere, and Cheltenham.

In 1851 AD, a hydrotherapy facility was opened in New York, USA, and a hydrotherapy school was successfully established in New York. Water treatment was very popular by 1850, and the Civil War changed many aspects of the spa center. Some have gone out of business, and only a few centered on the water remain, and the spa industry flourished in areas like Arkansas, Florida, east of Virginia.

1861 AD W. Winternett, a physician from Vienna, Austria, opened a dedicated counseling center with hydrotherapy facilities.

1876 ​​AD Dr. John Keller studied in Vienna as a student of Dr. Winternet, and ran a sanatorium in the United States for 46 years. His older brother developed Kellog’s cereal for breakfast for patients in sanatoriums.

1867 AD Dr. La Bonaradihiri defined and developed thalassotherapy (ocean therapy). Thalassotherapy treats the body through sea air and applies materials such as seawater, seaweed, mud, and sand to the healing therapy.

1870 AD Dutch physician Messer (1839-1901) ordered a massage treatment along with medication to recover from illness.

Bedurischopen, Germany, 1880 AD: Sebastian Knife achieved little effect with hydrotherapy, and in 1892 he published “My Water Cure”. Kneipp’s treatment changed the combination of phytotherapy and lifestyle.

1894 AD Women’s Beauty Group merged with the Women’s Massage Society for the advancement and standardization of massage technology. It was approved by the Chamber of Commerce in 1990, and an integrated society of trained masseuses was held.

1895 AD ‘Naturopathy’ (Naturopathy) was developed as a treatment method using water, massage, herbs, natural food, air, etc. by Dr. J. Shehill, and water therapy was recommended as a treatment method to increase the effect of medicines and surgery. A few years later, a naturopathic school was established in New York, USA.

1990 AD Climate therapy was developed, which utilizes mineral-rich seawater management methods and climate treatment effects.

1917 AD Establishing the British Spa Federation in the Spa Town of Egypt

Which city has the most UNESCO World Heritage sites?

World Heritage

The UNESCO World Heritage Site refers to a heritage that has been recognized as having a remarkable universal value to protect for humanity as a whole since 1972. There are 12 World Heritage Sites designated by UNESCO in Korea. Recently, the National Treasure No. 285 Bangudae Petroglyphs are being registered as UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Let’s look at the cities that have the most valuable world heritage sites.

Rome? Paris?

Which city has the most UNESCO World Heritage sites in the world? Some people might think of Rome in Italy first, others might think of Paris in France, but these two cities are not the answer. The city with the most UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the world is Cordoba, Spain.

Source: (above)

the largest city in the world 1000 years ago

Cordoba was the largest city in the world, with 320,000 people now living and three times the current population a thousand years ago. It is currently Spain’s 22nd largest city, with a total of four World Heritage Sites, the largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the world.


Cordoba Mosque (Mesquita)

Cordoba Mosque is the first UNESCO World Heritage site in Cordoba. It was originally built as a church in the 6th century, but it was changed to a mosque 100 years later. It is now the Roman Catholic Church, the Cathedral of the Ascension of Mary. This building is typical of the architecture of the Moors, who are Arab Muslims.

Source: Official website of Cabildo Catedral de Cordoba

Medina Azahara

Medina Azahara, designated as a World Heritage Site in 2018, means the royal annex and its surroundings, which Abd Allahman III built 1,000 years ago for his loved one. Now, only 10% of the total has been excavated, but it is said that it was already so colorful that it was called the Palace of Versailles in Cordoba. There were palaces, mosques, government agencies, gardens, residential areas, and baths.

Source: Medina Azahara Official Website

Cordoba Alkasar

Al-Qasar, designated as a World Heritage Site in 1994, was a place where Catholic kings lived, meaning a palace, a fortress. If you have the Alhambra Palace in Granada, Cordoba is beautiful enough to have Alkasar. It’s a very impressive place with an Islamic garden, an orange-tree patio, and a tower overlooking the city.


The Patio Festival

The Patio Festival, which was designated as a UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2012, is held in Cordoba in early May. “Patio” is a type of residence where a family or several families live together, and many plants are arranged beautifully. Also during the festival, traditional songs, flamenco guitar performances, and dance performances are held at the patio. Patio is not just a form of residence, but a symbol of the Cordoba people.

Japan’s Sado Mine World Heritage Recommendation, Issues

Japan's Sado Mine

The Japanese government has recommended the Sado Mine, where Koreans were forced to mobilize, as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The Japanese government submitted a recommendation to the UNESCO World Heritage Center on the 1st to register the Sado Mine in Niigata Prefecture as a World Heritage Site. The reason is that the Sado Mine has historical value because it produced gold in the traditional way in the 17th and 19th centuries.

The problem is that Sado Mine was the site where Koreans were forcibly mobilized during the Japanese colonial period. According to an academic research service report on the fact-finding investigation of the victims of forced mobilization by Japan published in 2019, there is a record of 1,140 Koreans depositing unpaid wages related to Sado mine in the Japanese National Archives. At least 1,140 Koreans were forcibly mobilized, meaning that wages were not paid directly to them.

There are some who have been recognized as victims of the Sado mine through the government’s investigation. Previously, the Forced Mobilization Victims Investigation Committee cross-verified the records and lists of victims of forced mobilization, and estimated and determined that 148 people were victims of Sado Mine. Nine of the 148 people died on the spot. 73 people reported sequelae. Pneumoconiosis was the majority.

일본 군함도

Oral testimony of the victim remains. Born in Nonsan, Chungcheongnam-do in 1919, Im Tae-ho was mobilized in the Sado mine in 1940. He mined ore underground. According to the report, “He lived with his heart pounding, thinking, ‘Can I get out of this basement alive today?’ There was no human treatment for the deceased.” Lim concluded the dictation by saying, “I have never heard a single word from the Japanese government sincere.” He died in 1997.
The government and civil society groups at home and abroad strongly opposed the promotion of the Sado Mine World Heritage Site. In the first phone call with Japanese Foreign Minister Yoshima Hayashi on the 3rd, Foreign Minister Chung Eui-yong protested the plan to list the Sado mine.

“The Kishida regime’s attempt to deny the history of the Sado Mine, which is promoting the registration of the Sado Mine as a World Heritage Site, is an insult to the victims of Sado Mine and the citizens of Korea and Japan who have been working hard to uncover the history of forced mobilization,” the Institute for National Studies said. “Japan’s attempt to distort history by covering the sky with the palm of its hand cannot escape international disgrace,” he said.

On the 25th of last month, the Japanese civic group Forced Mobilization Fact Investigation Network also said, “The government should not deny the forced labor of Koreans, but should be aware of it. It is a violation of the dignity of those who have been pushing for registration to inform the public, those who have tried to face the history of forced mobilization, and the victims of forced mobilization.”

A warship map at the site of forced labor for Koreans registered as a World Heritage Site. Kyodo News = Yonhap News
This is not the first time Japan has recommended a site of forced mobilization as a World Heritage Site. In 2015, another site of forced mobilization, the so-called “Battleship Island,” Hashima, applied for registration as a World Heritage Site. Japan acknowledged that forced mobilization had taken place at the time of the UNESCO nomination review. They promised to decorate each facility so that the entire history (including forced mobilization) could be understood. This was not observed. Rather, the facility was introduced in a way that denied the history of forced mobilization, such as saying, “The Koreans ate better things.” Last year, the UNESCO World Heritage Committee expressed regret over the Japanese government’s failure to live up to its promises.

The expert emphasized the government’s mid- to long-term response and restoration of the truth-finding agency. Jeong Hye-kyung, president of the Japan Forced Mobilization Peace Research Group, who wrote a report on the Sado mine in 2019, said, “Attempts have been made to register Meiji Industrial Heritage sites such as Battleship Island as world cultural heritages since 2015. Another Sado mine could appear at any time,” she said.

CEO Jeong said, “The fact-finding agency for forced mobilization, which closed in 2015, must be restored. Based on this, we can lay the groundwork to counter historical distortions,” she explained. In addition, an international academic network related to the Asia-Pacific war and the formation of a Korea-Japan joint research committee were also mentioned as solutions.

Source :

Artichoke, a cultural project


Artichoke, whom I encountered while in London, was due to the London Lumiere event. Light events are held throughout London, hosted by the Art Council and the Artichoke Trust in England. So it is an organization that I found out after checking. Artichoke, also known as Artichoke Trust, is a British company based in London and a charity organization that hosts arts and events. It was founded in 2020 by Helen Marridge and Nicky Webb.

The Luminaries of London

Throughout the city of London, sculptures and productions are made of light

The message is that London’s winter streets are changing because of Lumini
Artichoke is good at working on a large scale on the streets, especially in unusual places such as public places and quiet countryside. There are not only works in theaters or art galleries, but they are planned for events to show to many people. In April 2006, a free theater called Sultan’s Elephant was built and a million people attended over four days. Artichoke is a company created by two women, but the power of their work is big and bold.

The content of Sultan’s Elephant is simple. A huge girl takes off in a rocket and a police officer sprays the last big water, reminding the revolution in Britain as the elephant walks in the form of a large marionette. It is a simple content and play, but it is an unrivaled part of the ability to convey its meaning and create a large-scale show.

Sultan’s Elephant on the scene

Image at the Royal HORSE GUARD venue

A Girl Riding a Double-Story Bus, a Symbol of London
It was the biggest free event held in London at the time as an outdoor theater performance. It was performed for more than 4 days, but the preparation period was 7 years. In particular, it is said that persuasion and connection work by public institutions were the most difficult, and that is because the road from Trafalgar Square to St. James’ Park and HORSE GUARD in London was the most crowded area.

The giant machine spider held in Liverpool in 2008 is also a city festival in conjunction with La Machine, a French performing arts company, and this performance is also by Artichoke.

Machine Spiders in Liverpool

The 2018 British Women’s Suffrage Celebration Festival is also their work. The event marked the 100th anniversary of British women’s suffrage, including Processions, Belfast, Cardiff, Edinburgh and London.

100th Anniversary of Women’s Suffrage
Artichoke started out as a theater producer, but now he doesn’t consider them just a theater producer. It was covered by a large project company and an art organization that conducts cultural trends and social movements. It can be said that the journey started to be shown at the outdoor concert hall is a footstep that creates the movement of a large society that is created with technicians and all government offices.

I wanted such an art organization to come out in Korea and I wanted to make it, but I thought it was impossible in Korea at the thought of consulting with government offices, but I want to make it continuously in the future in terms of helping society.

a charity performance to help children leave the nursery

The San Diego Youth String Ensemble Youth Ensemble (Art Charity) will hold a charity concert at the Paloma Korean Church (170 Bosstick Blvd., San Marcos) at 5 p.m. on June 12.

At the charity concert, which will be held under the theme of “CARE,” about 20 people, including members of “Youth N Geddy” and graduates, will perform various music such as classical music, folk songs, folk songs, and hymns.

Youth N.G.D., which has donated donations and profits collected annually through charity concerts over the past decade to charities such as Korea’s Baby Box, will support the Good Fence, which is helping Korean nursery school evaders.

“Good Fence” is active to provide professional and comprehensive services for young people in difficult circumstances, such as youth protected and raised in child care facilities being terminated and driven to society without economic and emotional and economic support.

Youth N.G.D. was founded in 2005 by Yoon Sook-kyung (Rebeca), a musician, and has been leading the youth string ensemble in the Korean community in San Diego. Anyone can participate in the performance, and admission is free, but donations are received from those who want it.

A charity concert to donate refugees’ aid

a charity concert

A charity concert for donating refugee aid was held at 7 p.m. on December 12 at the Korean Cultural Center in Vienna. He held the “5th Charity Concert” under the title of “We Live Together,” and donated 13,370 euros to the Catholic Archdiocese of Vienna charity Caritas, asking for money to be raised for refugees.

For the past four years, WCN has held a charity concert every December during Christmas and donated the proceeds to the Catholic relief organization Caritas.

▲ Song Hyo-sook, CEO of WCN, is giving a greeting. (Photo by Kim Un-ha, overseas editor)

At the charity concert, which began with the host of WCN general manager Song Si-woong, CEO Song Hyo-sook said, “I am very happy and meaningful to hold another charity concert for refugees staying in Austria,” adding, “This was possible with the interest and active help of Korean residents.”

In addition, CEO Song said, “According to the UN Refugee Agency’s annual global trend report, there are 68.5 million refugees around the world as of last year,” and added, “I hope your warm hands will be able to share a little sympathy with them for the neighbors who are suffering from war and infighting.” In addition, he said, “WCN’s charity concerts will always be with us as a time to help them,” and added, “I hope your continued warm interest and love will be a great hope and comfort to Austrian refugees.”

▲ Ingrit Lachbauer, fundraiser at Caritas in the Catholic Archdiocese of Vienna, delivers a congratulatory speech and thanks. (Photo by Kim Un-ha, overseas editor)

▲ An introduction video of the refugee’s house, where the director of emergency relief in Vienna, Yuu Karitas, participated as a narrator. (Photo by Kim Un-ha, overseas editor)

Ingrit Lachbauer, a fundraiser at Caritas, the Catholic Archdiocese of Vienna, said, “I sincerely thank WCN CEO Song Hyo-sook, employees, and Koreans who participated in charity concerts for the needy neighbors and refugees five times.” In addition, he added, “Your warm love will contribute greatly to giving joy and happiness to refugees and making the world peaceful.”

Mingart Youu Caritas, director of the Vienna Emergency Relief Bureau, who attended with Rakhbauer, showed a video of the Karitas-run Vienna Middle East Refugee Relief Center, and thanked adults and children for their love without worrying about accommodation and education.

▲ Baritone Kim Tae-seop’s performance. (Photo by Kim Un-ha, overseas editor)

Then, a charity concert program was held along with the introduction of the world refugee record film prepared by WCN. Among baritone Kim Tae-seop’s barbers of the Lotcini opera Sevilia, the aria “Largoal factatum” was the first to be staged. He graduated from Yonsei University College of Music and is attending a master’s course at the Vienna National University of Music, singing three great songs, including Korean song Yoon Hak-joon’s “Welcome” and Tchaikovsky’s “Nurwer die Sehnsucht Kennt.”

▲ Cellist Park Jin-young’s performance (photographing, Kim Woon-ha, overseas editor)

Next, cellist Park Jin-young (named Angela), who is a soloist after serving as a member of the Bayerichen Broadcasting Symphony Orchestra in Munich, Germany and an important member of the Seoul Philharmonic Orchestra, played Tchaikovsky’s No. 19 No. 4. Cellist Angela Park, who played with world-famous orchestras such as the Philadelphia Orchestra and the Stuttgart Kammer Orchestra after deepening her skills at the Korean Yejong, Boston New England College of Music, and Berlin Art, again performed three songs, including Tchaikovsky’s Pezzo Capricioso b minor.

▲ Performance by soprano Lee Hye-jin. (Photo by Kim Un-ha, overseas editor)

Lee Hye-jin, a soprano who is currently active as a soloist at the Magdeburg National Theater in Germany, sang Norina’s aria “Quel guardo-Soanch” io la Virtumagica in the Donnyjeti opera “Don Pasquale.” She was born in Seoul, graduated from Yewon, Yeji, and Seoul National University College of Music, and won first prize at the 2017 Cologne International Vocal Competition in Frankfurt, before joining the Magdeburg National Theater in 2018. She sang three songs, including Puccini’s opera “La Boem”‘s Muzeta Aria “Quandom’envo” and Johann Strauss’s Operetta Bat’s Adele’s Aria “Spielich die Unschuld vom Lande.”

Subsequently, a duet stage between soprano Lee Hye-jin and baritone Kim Tae-seop took place. The two were applauded for singing Mozart’s opera Don Giovanni’s “Laci dareem la mano” and Franz Lahar Operetta’s delightful duet “Lips Silent.”

▲ Charity concert cast. (Photo by Kim Un-ha, overseas editor)

The accompaniment was accompanied by Shin Mi-jung, a pianist at the Vienna National University of Music who returned from successful performances in Switzerland, Korea, Italy and Russia.

After the charity concert, 13,370 euros were raised for refugees during the buffet dinner presented by Akakiko Jeon Mi-ja, and a delivery ceremony and a commemorative photo were held by WCN CEO Song Hyo-sook to deliver the fundraising to Karitas Ingrit Lakhbauer.

▲ Song Hyo-sook, CEO of WCN, is delivering 13,370 euros in fundraising to Karitas Ingrit Lachbauer. (Photo by Kim Un-ha, overseas editor)

▲ Charity concert attendees are applauding. (Photo by Kim Un-ha, overseas editor)

Meanwhile, Park Jong-beom, chairman of Youngsan Group, Chung Jong-wan, president of Austrian Korean Association, Kim Jong-dong, Park Bu-sik, chairman of the Korean Language School, Chun-bae, former vice chairman of Korean Association, Choi Chun-rye, CEO of Brun Golf, Kim Jong-min, and Park Chan-tae.

In addition, Shin Dong-ik, the Korean Ambassador to Austria, Michael Landau, the president of Caritas, Michael Ludwig, the mayor of Vienna, Chung Jong-wan, and Jeon Mi-ja, chairman of the Vienna Cultural Center, sent written congratulations.

Source: Overseas Koreans Newspaper (